Bachelor of Arts - History

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  • Objectives
    In an increasingly compartmentalized and specialized world, historical study is one of the best ways to promote an ability to synthesize information, to expand cultural awareness and to gain access to the many creative ways in which humans have responded to the challenges which face them. In addition, historical study deepens a number of specific skills which are invaluable assets for graduates entering the labour market and taking on the duties of citizenship, such as the ability to engage in research, to evaluate evidence and to present conclusions in a reasoned and coherent way. Traditionally, history graduates have gone on to careers in teaching, journalism and law, or to graduate studies in history, archival studies, museology, international affairs and public administration, but history graduates also fare well in today’s knowledge driven economy because of their well-honed communication and research skills. Many recent graduates are now employed in the private sector, often in communications and management capacities.
  • Academic title
    Bachelor of Arts - History
  • Course description
    The History Department offers introductory courses, and courses which cover the historical development of three main geographic areas: North America, Europe and the Developing World.
    In the senior years, courses reflect the research interests of its faculty, which include native and northern history, public history, environmental history, cultural and political history, military history, history of communications and technology, gender and family history, and the history of disease.

    The Program

    We believe that all graduates, whether Majors or Honours, must possess the ability to undertake self-directed intensive research, to be familiar with a wide range of past societies and to be aware of the interpretive and methodological options for analyzing them. The programs are constructed to allow students to acquire this knowledge and develop these skills. In the first year of the program, students learn about the main currents and major phases of history; they acquire the skills necessary to contextualize primary documents and to analyze them in order to extract usable historical data. At the same time, they are introduced to the major interpretive approaches of historians, developing an ability to read secondary sources in an efficient and critical manner. Finally, students learn to construct significant research hypotheses, to design a viable research plan and to present the results of their research in a reasoned and coherent manner.
    In the following years students gain a deeper familiarity with the histories and historiography of Europe (especially Western Europe), of North America and the developing world, through more intensive chronological/geographic surveys. In the 200 and 300 level courses, discussion and debate begins to form a larger portion of the instructional method than in the introductory surveys. The 300 level courses approach the past from a thematic and comparative perspective, providing an introduction to a number of historical subdisciplines, as well as to their unique methodologies and rich theoretical literature.

    The 400 level seminars are our capstone courses. In these courses, students have an opportunity to deepen their knowledge of a particular period or theme through a more thorough reading of relevant literature. The seminar format also fosters student participation and contribution to an ongoing communal research effort through debate, discussion, oral presentations and commentary. Finally, seminar participants engage in intensive research (including primary sources) on a specific topic within the area, present their research program and findings to colleagues and learn to revise their final papers or reports in light of commentary and criticism from the instructor and their peers.


    Honours in History

    Students enrolled in the honours program must successfully complete 60 credits in history courses or cognates in which they must maintain an overall average of 70%. The last 30 credits of the program must be completed at Bishop’s. The 60 credits required for the Honours degree must include:

        * History 110; two of History 104, History 107 and History 109 for students in the 90 credit B. A. program; History 110; two of History 104, History 105, History 107 and History 109 for students in the 120 credit B.A. program.
        * A minimum of 18 credits in 200 level courses (National Histories and Surveys) including six credits in North American history, six credits in European history, three credits in the history of the Developing World, and HIS 200.
        * A minimum of 12 credits in 300 level courses (Thematic, Comparative and Area Studies),
        * A minimum of 12 credits in 400 level courses (Seminars).

    Major in History

    Students enrolled in the Major in History must successfully complete 48 credits in history courses or cognates, of which a minimum of 24 credits must be completed at Bishop’s. The 48 credits required for the Major must include:

        * History 110; two of History 104, History 107 and History 109 for students in the 90 credit B. A. program; History 110; two of History 104, History 105, History 107 and History 109 for students in the 120 credit B.A. program.
        * A minimum of 18 credits in 200-level courses (National Histories and Surveys) including six credits in North american history, six credits in European history, three credits in the history of the Developing World, and HIS 200.
        * A minimum of 9 credits in 300-level courses (Thematic, Comparative and Area Studies).
        * A minimum of 6 credits in 400-level courses (Seminars)

    Major in Public History

    Public history is a growing field, with new opportunities opening for history majors in recent years in such areas as historical societies, museums, corporations, municipalities, NGOs, provincial and federal government agencies and private genealogical enterprises. The program provides students with the opportunity to explore a variety of non-teaching careers in history and prepare them for employment in a field which is expected to continue to show expansion.
    100 level:
    HIS 110; two of HIS 104, HIS 107 and HIS 109 for students in the 90 credit B.A. program;
    HIS 110; two of HIS 104, HIS 105, HIS 107 and HIS 109 for students in the 120 credit B.A. program.
    200 level:
    HIS 200
    6 credits in Canadian or Quebec history
    6 credits in Europe and/or Developing World (3 credits may be replaced by * below)
    3 credits in HIS 240 Introduction to Public History
    300 level: 9 credits total
    At least 3 credits among:
    HIS 390    Archival/institutional internship
    HIS 392    Research Internship

    The remainder among:
    HIS 328    Native/Settler Relations in Canada
    HIS 330    Field Trips into Canadian History: Society and the Environment
    HIS 332    The Celluloid Republic
    HIS 368    The Young in Western Society
    HIS 371    A History of Communications
    HIS 372    Historical Methods and Primary Source Research
    HIS 373    War and Canadian Society
    HIS 379    Technology and Society in N.A. 1850 to Present
    FIN 235    Museology

    3 credits in the above list may be replaced by * below
    400 level: 6 credits total
    3 credits in HIS 450 Public History seminar
    3 credits from:
    HIS 413    British North America
    HIS 414    Environment and Society in North America
    HIS 432    Social History of Disease in the West
    HIS 449    English Family from the Black Death to the Present
    HIS 455    Public History Practicum

    * Up to 6 credits from the following list of courses may be used to replace a 200-level European or Developing World course, and/or a 300-level course from the non-internship list.
    BMG 214    Introduction to Entrepreneurship
    FIN 218      Digital Imaging for the Artist
    POL 214    Public Administration
    POL 334    Public Policy Analysis
    Minor in History
    Students enrolled in the minor must complete 24 credits in History courses or cognates including:

        * 6 credits in 100 level courses
        * A minimum of 12 credits in 200 or 300 level courses including 3 credits in each of the three geographic areas offered by the Department


    History 104     The Development of the West     3-3-0
    An introduction to the major developments in Western history from the end of the ancient world to the early nineteenth century. Topics will include the origins and evolution of medieval civilization, and its breakdown in the Renaissance and the Reformation; political, cultural and economic developments in early modern Europe, and the challenges to the ancien regime posed by the French and industrial revolutions.

    History 105b     The 20th Century World     3-3-0
    The 20th century has been an age of extremes. It has witnessed the rise of human rights, great economic and social transformations, and wars of unprecedented severity. Topics to be discussed include the rise of totalitarian movements, notably fascism and communism, warfare, de-colonization, economic crisis, the genocides of the 20th century in Europe and Asia, and the post-1945 East-West schism.

    History 107ab     North America since 1860     3-3-0
    A comparative examination of Mexico, the United States and Canada during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics to be examined include industrialization, social movements, Aboriginal Peoples, political development, and international relations.

    History 109ab     New World: The Americas to 1850     3-3-0
    An introduction to the history of North and South America from the pre-Columbian era to the mid-19th century. The main topics include a survey of pre-Columbian civilizations, contact between native Americans and Europeans, the rise and fall of European empires in the Americas, the creation and growth of independent nation states in the New World.


    History 110a     Introduction to Historical Studies     3-3-0
    This first-year course is designed for History Majors. Paired with one of the introductory survey courses, it will introduce students to the ways in which historians practice their profession, through the use of primary material, the critical assessment of secondary works, the exploration of basic research strategies, and interpretive discussion and debate.

    History 200ab     Approaches to the Past: History in Theory and in Practice     3-3-0
    This course will provide an analytical survey of the development of the historical consciousness from the ancient world to the present, through a detailed examination of selected classical, medieval, modern and postmodern texts. Philosophical issues in the study of the past, such as causation, objectivity and the nature of historical explanation will also be covered.
    Not open to students with credit in HIS 367

    History 240ab     Introduction to Public History: Community Heritage and the Preservation of the Everyday     3-3-0
    Using the rich historical resources of the Eastern Townships, including its various archives, museums and historical societies, students will learn about, and do, the work of public historians in the fields of local history, material culture, heritage and preservation. Readings, lectures and films will also be used to supplement students’ experiences of public history and the contexts in which it operates.

    History 372ab     Historical Methods and Primary Source Research     3-3-0
    This course focuses on methodological approaches through an examination of important studies in the fields of social, economic, cultural and political history. Students will also apply research and analytical techniques in a project based on primary source materials.


    North America

    History 207     Canada 1867-1945     3-3-0
    This course will trace the political, social, economic, and cultural history of the Canadian federation from 1867 to 1945. Special attention will be given to such topics as geographic expansion, relations among the founding peoples, the Riel Rebellions, the move towards Canadian autonomy, foreign relations, the world wars, the role of women in society, the Great Depression, and politics and reform movements.

    History 211ab     Canada Since 1945     3-3-0
    This course will trace the political, social, economic, and cultural history of Canada since the end of World War Two. Special attention will be given to such topics as postwar economic prosperity, relations with the United States, the “golden age” of Canadian foreign policy, the baby-boomer generation, feminism and the rights of women, constitutional change, Medicare, bilingualism, Pierre Trudeau, and multiculturalism.

    History 214ab     The United States, 1877-1945     3-3-0
    This course will examine American political, social, cultural, economic, diplomatic, and military history from the era of reconstruction until the end of world war II. Special emphasis will be placed upon industrial growth, continental expansion, the closing of the frontier, urbanization, immigration, progressivism, the two world wars, the depression, and America’s rise to global power.

    History 215ab     The United States to 1877     3-3-0
    This course traces the evolution of American society from the Colonial period, through the Revolutionary Era to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Among the topics to be discussed are the colonial experience, the forging of American republicanism, the Constitution, the growing complexity of ante-bellum society, the problem of slavery and the crisis of American federalism.

    History 217ab     The United States Since 1945     3-3-0
    This course will examine American political, social, cultural, economic, diplomatic, and military history since 1945. Emphasis will be placed on the postwar economic boom, social change, civil rights, the cold war confrontation, the war on poverty, the 1960s and the war in Vietnam, Nixon and Watergate, Reaganism, and the culture wars of the 1990s.

    History 221ab     Pre-Confederation Canada     3-3-0
    A history of the various Canadian peoples and communities of pre- Confederation Canada beginning with First Nations through the establishment of French-Canadian society on the St Lawrence, the Anglo-American settlers of early Nova Scotia, the Loyalists of Ontario and the Maritime provinces, and including the migrants of the early nineteenth century. The focus of the course will be on social, economic and cultural development.

    History 265ab     Québec: Political Change and Industrialization 1840-1930     3-3-0
    Beginning with the Union period, this course traces the main political, economic and social developments of an age marked by Confederation, the growing conflicts between French and English Canada, and successive waves of industrialization and urbanization. The course will also deal with cultural development in this period, with particular emphasis on the struggle between liberalism and traditional nationalism.

    History 266ab     Contemporary Québec: 1930 to the present     3-3-0
    Asocial, political and economic history of Quebec from the Depression to the present which highlights the transformations wrought by World War II and the Quiet Revolution. Topics to be examined include the decline of clerical influence, the rise of the labour movement, the emergence of new Québécois elites, the evolution of the provincial state, the evolution of nationalism and the growth of the sovereignty movement.


    History 232ab     France: Enlightenment & Revolution     3-3-0
    An examination of eighteenth-century social and political controversies, key enlightenment figures and intellectual trends, the 1789 Revolution, counter-revolution, the Terror, and Napoleon.

    History 233ab     Britain in the Twentieth Century     3-3-0
    British politics and society from the Edwardians to the present. Major topics will include the impact of the two World Wars, economic and social developments in the interwar and postwar periods, the interwar crisis in foreign relations, the emergence of the Welfare State and the rise and fall of consensus politics.

    History 237ab     The Formation of Modern Europe 1815-1914     3-3-0
    This course will provide an analysis of the concepts, forces and movements which created modern Europe in the nineteenth century. It will study the articulation of ideologies, the contest for emancipation in its various forms, the construction of new concepts of citizenship and political power, the technological and economic growth of the period, with its associated social tensions, and the growing rivalries among the emerging nation-states of the Continent. It will end by looking at the internal and external conflicts - socioeconomic, political and cultural - that set the stage for the murderous struggles of the early 20th century.
    Not open to students with credit in HIS 365

    History 238ab     Russia in the Twentieth Century     3-3-0
    An examination of the main features of Russian and Soviet history from the Russo- Japanese War and the 1905 Revolution to the present. Elements of continuity and discontinuity in that history will be highlighted. Focus will be placed on the Revolutions of 1917, the two World Wars, collectivization and industrialization and post-WWII expansion, consolidation and rivalry with the West.

    History 243ab     Medieval England     3-3-0
    A comprehensive survey of English history from the Anglo-Saxons to the late fifteenth century. Attention will be given to the development of English institutions in the pre- Conquest period, the impact of the Norman Conquest, the development of feudalism and feudal monarchy, medieval society and economy, and the growth of parliamentary institutions.

    History 246ab     Medieval and Early Modern Ireland     3-3-0
    This course will provide a broad survey of Irish political and social history in the medieval and early modern periods. The course is divided into three parts. In the first section the Norman invasion and the struggle for the lordship of Ireland will be examined. The second part will deal with the impact on Ireland of the Tudor conquest, the Reformation and the British wars of the seventeenth century. The third part will chronicle the state under the Protestant ascendancy, prior to the union of 1801.

    History 247ab     Modern Ireland     3-3-0
    This course examines the history of Ireland since the rebellion of 1798. Particular themes include Anglo-Irish relations, famine and emigration, nationalism and Home Rule, unionism and Ulster, cultural achievement, partition and independence.

    History 248ab     Early Modern England 1500 to 1750     3-3-0
    A survey of the transition of England from a feudal polity and society into a modern nation, focusing on themes of stability and conflict from the Tudor period until the mid eighteenth century. Major topics to be studied include the rise of the Tudor State, economic and social change in the early modern period, constitutional and religious crises and their resolution in the seventeenth century, the rise of Empire and the development of a pre-industrial economy and society.

    History 249ab     Britain in the Liberal Age 1750-1914     3-3-0
    This course will study the interaction of political, social, economic and cultural change from 1750 to World War I. Topics to be examined include the experience of and response to industrialization, the rise of economic and political liberalism, the changing forms and growth of organised labour, foreign policy and imperialism, the ethos of the Victorian age — domestic, moral and cultural — and its late nineteenth century transformation.

    History 253ab     A History of Medieval Europe     3-3-0
    This course is an introduction to the history of Europe from the breakdown of the ancient world to the beginning of Modern Europe. After a survey of the Germanic, Roman and Christian roots of medieval society, special attention is given to those institutions and developments which characterized the civilization of the high Middle Ages: the 12th century renaissance, the Christian ideal, the medieval university, relations between church and state, feudal society, the crusades, chivalry and the medieval style in the fine arts.

    Developing World

    History 256ab     Latin America 1800 to the Present     3-3-0
    This course will survey the history of Latin America and the Caribbean from c. 1800 to the present day. The course will deal with the major social, economic and political processes of the period. The class will also provide insight into problems of development and underdevelopment as well as a discussion of the movements for social change.

    History 257ab     Latin America to 1800     3-3-0
    This course will provide a survey of the history of Latin America and the Caribbean from pre-Columbian times to the wars of independence. Topics to be explored include the nature and development of pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations, the impact of European contact and transatlantic migrations, the formation and evolution of colonial societies, economies and cultures, and the origins of national political movements in the late 18th century.

    History 272ab     The History of Modern India     3-3-0
    This course aims at an integrated overview on the main components of India’s cultural heritage and social structures; the development of distinct political institutions as well as movements of resistance, communalism and nationalism during Britain’s colonial rule from the end of the Mogul empire to India’s independence in 1947.

    History 276ab     A History of Modern Africa     3-3-0
    This course will study the evolution of the African continent from the beginning of colonial imperialism in 1870 to the end of the Apartheid system in South Africa in 1994. The making of colonial empires and their political, economic, cultural and social impact on Africa will be explored, while the struggle for decolonization and the gaining of independence will provide a deeper understanding of the continuing structural problems of African postcolonial states. Postcolonial issues as neocolonialism, underdevelopment, PanAfricanist ideology, the Apartheid system and Rwanda’s genocide also will be analyzed in both diachronic and synchronic perspectives.

    History 278ab     A History of the Middle East to 1919     3-3-0
    The course includes an introduction to the legacy of early and pre- Islamic civilizations in the Middle East, an examination of the rise and influence of Islam in the region, an account of the emergence, growth and decline of the major Islamic empires, and an assessment of their achievements and challenges. Special attention is given to the relations between the Middle East and the West and particularly to the role of the Great Powers in the affairs of the Ottoman and Persian empires. The interactions of the West and the Middle East prior to 1919 greatly influenced the course of Middle Eastern history and politics up to the present.

    History 279ab     The Middle East in the Twentieth Century     3-3-0
    The course is a study of the forces and events that have shaped the contemporary Middle East since the First World War. It explores the role played by Western colonial powers in forging a new political and territorial order in the region, the rise and growth of nationalism and the struggles for independence that marked the first half of the century. It examines the stormy relations between the Middle East and the West after the Second World War and the ways in which the involvement of major world powers in the area and internal regional developments molded the political evolution of the contemporary Middle East. Special attention will be given to the growing dominance of the United States, the resurgence of Islam, the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf wars.

    History 281     History of Pre-colonial Africa     3-3-0
    This course will examine the evolution of the African continent from the 12th to the mid-19th century. Topics to be studied include the origins of African kingdoms and their political, economic and social organizations. Important aspects of the African civilizations such as oral and religious conceptions (animism and Islam), artistic, architectural, philosophic and literary realizations will be examined in both North and Sub- Saharan Africa. The phenomenon of domestic and transatlantic slavery will be deeply analyzed, in particular its origins, justifications and manifestations and also the factors that led to its demise.

    History 283ab     A History of Chinese Civilization     3-3-0
    This course introduces China’s history and cultural heritage from antiquity to the end of the 19th century C.E. Political history, modes of governmental and socioeconomic organization, and developments in thought and religions will be examined in three major epochs: a formative age, from antiquity into the third century B.C.E.; an early imperial age, from the third century B.C.E. to the 10th century C.E.; and a later imperial age, from the 10th century C.E. to the late 19th century C.E.

    History 284ab     Twentieth-Century China     3-3-0
    The course examines China’s transformation into a modern nation-state. Topics to be discussed include China’s four political revolutions, the role of Japanese aggression and civil war, the construction of an industrializing economy, as well as the transformation of Chinese society and culture.

    History 285     The Global Economy in the Asian Age, 1400-1800     3-3-0
    Now that we are witnessing the rise of an Asia-centered world with China and India as its locomotive, we need to ask whether this development represents a return to Asia’s traditional dominance before 1800. This course will describe the pattern of global trade during the period 1400-1800. The role of money in the global economy, the interaction between European expansion and other parts of the world will be discussed. Factors leading to the rise of the West as the leader of the world system after 1800 will also be examined.


    History 328ab     Native/Settler Relations in Canada     3-3-0
    Through a variety of lectures, readings and films, this course will focus on the legal and political issues and events that have shaped Native/settler relations from1763 to the present. Topics to be examined include: treaties, education, the Indian Act,Aboriginal protest movements and self-government negotiations.

    History 330     Field Trips into Canadian History: Society and the Environment     3-12-0
    The purpose of this course will be to introduce students to the environmental history of Canada, particularly during the 20th century. The course will focus primarily on Canadians’ understanding of landscape and their uses of the land. The first two weeks of the course will follow the standard in-class format of lectures and discussions and present material on the historic relationship between Canadians and their environment, as well as theoretical or ideological understandings of it. The third week of the class will consist of a canoe trip in the Lake Temagami area of Ontario where the landscapes of logging, Indian land claims, and recreation will become the focus of study and analysis.

    History 331ab     Women in 19th and 20th Century Canada     3-3-0
    This course will expose students to a variety of issues and experiences that have been historically relevant to women. Particular attention will be paid to the experiences of Aboriginal women, the impact of changing technology on women’s work and women’s participation in politics.

    History 332ab     The Celluloid Republic     3-3-0
    This course focuses on Hollywood’s role in shaping and reinforcing the core values, symbols and dominant paradigms of Americans political culture from the 1930’s to the 1980s. Insights derived from the work of political and cultural historians will be brought to bear in an analysis of films including Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Citizen Kane, The Manchurian Candidate and All the President’s Men.

    History 352ab     History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict     3-3-0
    This course will give students a thorough understanding of the history of the Arab- Israeli conflict. It will identify and examine the main issues, themes and events which have characterized and shaped the conflict over the past century, from the origins of political Zionism in the late nineteenth century to the present impasse and the future prospects for peace. The conflict will also be paced in its wider context of the history of the Middle Est and the Wet, and their interaction.

    History 359ab     American Foreign Relations in the Twentieth Century     3-3-0
    The participation of the United States in world affairs from the Spanish-American War to the Cold War: the conflict of ideals and self-interest, of ideology and realism, in the conduct of foreign policy.

    History 363ab     Europe in Crisis, 1450-1648     3-3-0
    This course examines the steady decline and near collapse of European civilization from a high point of cultural innovation in the Renaissance to the depths of the Thirty Years War. Topics include European aggression in the new world, the splintering of Catholic unity, the witch panics, the formation of states, strategies of control and repression.

    History 364ab     European Imperialism, 1870-1918     3-3-0
    Few nineteenth-century topics have generated more controversy than the establishing of a European overseas hegemony. The course examines the motives behind expansion within the metropolitan states and the impact of the European presence on those areas of the globe which became the objects of a European embrace.

    History 366ab     European Diplomacy since 1914     3-3-0
    This course examines the international relations and foreign policies of the major European states from the beginning of world war I to the Cold war and the emergence of modern Europe.
    Not open to students with credit in History 277 Cross listed as Political Studies 277.

    History 368ab     The Young in western Society     3-3-0
    A course which examines the experience of children and youth in European and North American society from the late Middle Ages onwards. Among the topics to be discussed are changing notions of childhood and youth; the development of educational, welfare and “child-saving” systems; social, cultural and economic change and its impact on the young; and the role of youth in shaping the larger culture and society of the west.

    History 370ab     The Americas: A Comparative Colonial History     3-3-0
    Examines the rise and fall of the great European empires in the Americas, with an emphasis on the process of implantation and growth of new societies. Topics to be examined include contact with Native peoples, demographic features of early colonial populations, slavery and colonial economies, the rise of colonial elites and their challenge to imperial authority.

    History 371ab     A History of Communications     3-3-0
    Examines the evolution of different modes of communication from the advent of writing systems, through the printing press to the electronic media of the twentieth century. The focus of the course will be on the social, cultural and economic impact of communication revolutions.

    History 373ab     War and Canadian Society     3-3-0
    An examination of the role of war in Canadian society and those factors which have influenced war and foreign policies. Some attention will be paid to the wars of the French regime, the War of 1812 and the Riel rebellions. The course will concentrate on the twentieth century: the South African War, the two world wars, Korea, and the role of Canadian diplomacy.

    History 374ab     Canada and the World in the 20th Century     3-3-0
    Topics include Canada and imperialism, the two world wars, the development of Canadian foreign policy, the golden age of Canadian diplomacy, Canada and the League of Nations, and the United Nations.

    History 378     War and Peace in the Middle East     3-3-0
    This course will study the modern Middle East through the wars that have shaped so much of its recent history. Starting with Turkey’s entry into the First World War in 1914, the course will examine the origins, events, consequences and peace arrangements of the major wars that have shaped the Middle East in the twentieth century, such as the two World Wars, the Arab-Israeli Wars, the Suez War, the Iran-Iraq War, and the two Gulf Wars. These conflicts provide a lens through which students can gain better insight into the personalities, forces, ideologies and geo-strategic factors that have determined the political map of the region over the last hundred years.

    History 379ab     Technology and Society in N.A. 1850 to Present     3-3-0
    This course will focus on the development of technological systems in Canada and the U.S. in order to assess how technology shapes and is shaped by important political, economic and social events.

    History 380ab     Women in Modern British History     3-3-0
    This course is a survey of the position, roles and experiences of British women from the era before the industrial Revolution to present times. The period under discussion is subdivided into a number of chronological sections, each of which is understood to have been moulded by a set of specific themes. Themes analyzed in the lectures and discussions include women in pre-and proto-industrial economy; women’s work in industrial capitalism; women’s education; the suffrage movement; women in the two World Wars, the labour movement, and in welfare campaigns.

    History 381ab     The Cold War in Global Context     3-3-0
    This course will analyze the origins, course and consequences of the Cold War from the end of World War II to the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Among the topics to be studied are the ideological and geopolitical foundations of Soviet-American antagonism, the assumptions and objectives of each bloc, the emergence of the Third World and the impact of Cold War on its evolution, the building of non-alignment and neutrality as responses to a bipolarized world, and political/diplomatic competition and ‘hot wars’, in particular in Asia and Africa.

    History 391ab     Archival Internship     3-3-0
    Unpaid internship in a local archival repository under the joint supervision of an archivist and a member of faculty. Students will be evaluated on the completion of preestablished objectives and may be required to prepare a major report, an archival inventory or a finding aid. Students must obtain departmental approval before registering for the internship.

    History 392     Research Internship     3-3-0
    Unpaid internship under the supervision of a member of the department. The student will be responsible for undertaking research related activities in support of the research project of a faculty member.


    History 404     The Numbered Treaties     3-3-0
    From 1871 until 1921, Canada entered into a series of treaties with many of the First Nations who occupied territory in what is now known as Ontario, the prairie provinces and some areas to the north. These treaties, numbered 1 to 11, formed the basis of the First Nations’ relationship to the Canadian state. The scholarship on this relationship and on many other related points is divided and controversial. This course, through readings, seminar discussions and primary source materials, will explore the numbered treaties: their terms, the reasons for their negotiation, the expectations of the various parties, and the scholarly debates that surround their meaning and significance.

    History 407ab     Political History     3-3-0
    In the past few decades, the “New Political History” has gone beyond the study of great men and embraced theoretical perspectives drawn from the humanities and social sciences. Drawing on examples from British, French, American and Canadian historiography this seminar will introduce students to the major schools that inform this vibrant and dynamic sub discipline.

    History 412ab     Colonial America     3-3-0
    Examines through readings and seminar discussions, the social, economic, cultural and political development of the Anglo-American colonies to 1776. Topics to be covered include the formation of colonial societies, the creation of slave and free economies, religious and political thought in transition, and the Anglo-American colonies as part of the British empire.

    History 413ab     British North America     3-3-0
    Examines the history of the British North american colonies from a regional and thematic perspective. Topics include economic growth in an imperial context, immigration, the rebellions in the Canadas, regional and ethnic identities, and relations with the United States.

    History 414ab     Environment and Society in North America     3-3-0
    This course traces the relationship Canadians and Americans have had with their environment within a political, economic and intellectual context. Intertwined with this history will be First Nations’ views and issues with respect to the land and natural resources.

    History 415ab     The American Civil War     3-3-0
    A seminar course which will analyse both the cause of the conflict and its political, social, military and diplomatic consequences.

    History 421ab     The War in Vietnam     3-3-0
    This course examines, through a series of seminars, the causes and events of the Vietnam War, its political and social impact on the United States, as well as its effects on international relations.

    History 430a     Gender and Sexuality in the Pre-Modern World     3-3-0
    This seminar course examines both the construction and everyday practices of gender and sexuality before the rise of modern viewpoints and sensibilities on the subject. By looking at various cultural groups, discussions will focus on the legal, socio-economic and cultural processes that shaped pre-modern understandings of these changing concepts. Issues such as the role of women in society, gender identity, masculinity/ femininity, and marginalized sexual or gender practices will be analyzed taking into account the development of different perspectives within the historical profession.

    History 431ab     Inquisitions, Law and Society     3-3-0
    This seminar course focuses on the changing faces of inquisitorial practice, from the nascent medieval Inquisition and infamous characters like Bernard Gui to the modern papal version headed by Cardinal Ratzinger, not forgetting of course Torquemada’s Spanish Inquisition and its less known Portuguese cousin. Relying on a thematic approach, the course will particularly examine the social and legal contexts of inquisitorial practice.

    History 432     The Social History of Disease in the West     3-3-0
    This seminar course will explore the construction of disease and its social and political repercussions by focusing on specific epidemics that have indelibly left their mark on the West. In particular, students will utilize primary sources within a corpus of historical literature to unravel the complex interactions brought about by epidemics such as the Black Death in Medieval Europe, Syphilis across the Early Modern World, Smallpox in the Americas, and most recently AIDS.

    History 434ab     Ideology and Revolution, 1789-1849     3-3-0
    An examination of the emancipatory drives - democratic, liberal, socialist, feminist, nationalist - that defined Europe from the 1789 French Revolution to the mid-century revolutions which swept across the continent. The course explores the interplay of ideology and action, including revolutionary violence, to effect change and promote “progress”.

    History 436ab     Europe: State and Society in Transition, 1500-1800     3-3-0
    This seminar course examines the development of early modern European society by focusing on popular culture and the points of contact between this culture and literate culture, including the state. Topics include: the material conditions of life, the wars of religion, popular pastimes and plebeian morals.

    History 437     International Relations from 1870 to the present     3-3-0
    Since the end of the nineteenth century, the basis, nature and issues of international relations have profoundly changed. Through assigned readings and discussions, this seminar course will examine the evolution. Topics to be studied include the historiography of international relations, ‘balance of power’ system of the nineteenth century and its breakdown, the diplomatic history of the period of the world wars, the role of the UN, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the non-alignment movement, peace-keeping, and the rise of terrorism as a major international issue.

    History 438b     War and Society in Europe, 1914-1945     3-3-0
    The first half of the 20th century in Europe was unprecedented in terms of the extent and intensity of war-related destruction and general social turmoil. Through assigned readings and discussions, this seminar course examines the causes and the impact of violent conflict in this period.

    History 445ab     Britain in the First World War     3-3-0
    A seminar course which examines the impact of World War I on the politics, society, culture and economy of Britain. Topics to be studied include military strategy, political leadership and party alignments, conscription and the war economy, labour and the war, the changing roles and experiences of women, the trenches and the trench experience, and the growth and ebb of government intervention.

    History 446ab     Industrialization and Society: Britain 1760-1850     3-3-0
    This seminar course will concentrate on the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution in the place of its birth. Topics to be examined include the economic and social origins of the Industrial Revolution and changing role of the State; the emergence of class and of popular politics; the formation of modern ideologies, such as liberalism, classical economics, utilitarianism and early socialism; and the effects of industrialization on work, culture and the family.

    History 449ab     The English Family from the Black Death to the Present     3-3-0
    A seminar course which focuses on the evolution of the family from the late Middle Ages to the era of mature industrialism. Theoretical and historiographical approaches to the western family will be combined with an empirical investigation of such issues as gender and age relations, demographics, domestic ideologies and the place of the family in wider economic, social and political structures.

    History 450ab     Public History     3-3-0
    This course is designed to introduce students to both the theory and practice of public history by examining sources from both Canada and the United States. By focusing on the origins and current issues of the field and by highlighting certain public history domains such as government consulting, museums and heritage sites, and the media, students will learn about information management, the demands of the client-contractor relationship and the ethical issues and controversies which make public history exciting and challenging.

    History 455     Public History Practicum     3-3-0
    A directed independent study in which the student undertakes historical work in one of a range of institutions or agencies.

    History 462ab     French-Canadian Nationalism     3-3-0
    Examines, through a series of seminars, the thought of a number of important French-Canadian nationalists and that of their critics.

    History 490a     Honours Research Proposal     3-0-0
    The preparatory stage of an individual specialized research project on a topic chosen by the student under the supervision of a member of the Department. The student will develop a research proposal which will define a viable topic and present a detailed plan of research. This will include a detailed discussion of the objectives and parameters of the proposed research, an explanation of the theoretical and methodological approaches to be taken and an historiographical overview of the relevant literature. It will also include a description and preliminary analysis of the appropriate primary and secondary sources, a bibliography and a comprehensive proposed structure for the subsequent thesis. The research plan will be assessed by a panel of three members of the Department during the final weeks of the semester.

    History 491a     Honours Thesis     3-0-0
    Continuation of HIS 490a. The student will complete the research agenda detailed in HIS 490, and present the findings in the form of a thesis no later than two weeks before the marks deadline. The thesis should be modeled upon a learned article. It should be no more than 10000 words: quality of analysis and conceptual rigour will outweigh exhaustive treatment of the subject. An oral examination will be required, and the thesis will be assessed by the panel of the preceding course.
    Prerequisite: HIS 490a


    History 286a    Independent Studies for U2 Students
    History 287b    Independent Studies for U2 Students
    History 386a    Independent Studies for U3 Students
    History 387b    Independent Studies for U3 Students

    Classics: 120ab, 209a, 210b, 260b.
    Politics: Cognate courses must be selected in consultation with the Chair prior to registration in the course.
    Psychology: 342a, 343b.
    Religion: 256a, 257b.
    Sociology: 207b.

    Students in the Major or Honours program may count a maximum of 12 credits in cognate courses toward the degree. Students in the Minor program may count a maximum of 6 credits in cognate courses toward the degree.

Other programs related to history

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