Course description
Program Requirements
The options for the M.Sc. program are described below. Normally the requirements for the research M.Sc. with thesis consist of:
* 2.5 credits of course work
* A thesis (2.5 credits) defended at an oral examination
* Participation in the seminar series of the Institute
For the medical physics stream the three areas of specialization are: imaging, therapy, and biophysics. All students are required to take PHYS 5203 and 0.5 credit appropriate physics course from an area of physics other than medical physics. In addition:
* For imaging, PHYS 5204 is required
* For therapy, PHYS 5206 is required
* For biophysics, 0.5 credit chosen from PHYS 5207, cell biology, physiology or anatomy is required
PHYS 5701 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5170)
Intermediate Quantum Mechanics with Applications
Angular momentum and rotation operations; Wigner and Racah coefficients; several and many electron problem in atoms; variational and Hartree-Fock formalism; introduction to second quantized field theory; scattering theory.
Prerequisites: PHYS 4707 and PHYS 4708 or permission of the Department.
The following courses are offered only at Carleton:
PHYS 5002 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5344)
Computational Physics
Computational methods used in analysis of experimental data. Introduction to probability and random variables. Monte Carlo methods for simulation of random processes. Statistical methods for parameter estimation and hypothesis tests. Confidence intervals. Multivariate data classification. Unfolding methods. Examples taken primarily from particle and medical physics. Also offered at the undergraduate level, with different requirements, as PHYS 4807, for which additional credit is precluded.
Prerequisite: an ability to program in FORTRAN, Java, C, or C++ or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5101 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8111)
Classical Mechanics and Theory of Fields
Hamilton's principle; conservation laws; canonical transformations; Hamilton-Jacobi theory; Lagrangian formulation of classical field theory.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5201 [0.5 credit]
Introduction to Medical Imaging Principles and Technology
Basic principles and technological implementation of x-ray, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other imaging modalities used in medicine. Contrast, resolution, storage requirements for digital images. Applications outside of medicine, future trends.
Precludes additional credit for BIOM 5201.
Prerequisite: permission of the Physics Department.
PHYS 5202 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8122)
Special Topics in Molecular Spectroscopy
Topics may include: electronic spectra of diatomic and triatomic molecules and their interpretation using molecular orbital diagrams; Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy; symmetry aspects of vibrational and electronic levels of ions and molecules in solids; the presence of weak and strong resonant laser radiation. (Also listed as CHEM 5009/CHM 8150).
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5203 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5161)
Medical Radiation Physics
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Sources: X-ray, accelerators, radionuclide. Charged particle interaction mechanisms, stopping powers, kerma, dose. Introduction to dosimetry. Units, measurements, dosimetry devices.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5204 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5112)
Physics of Medical Imaging
Physical foundation of and recent developments in transmission X-ray imaging, computerized tomography, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound, for the imaging physicist specialist. Physical descriptors of image quality, including contrast, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and modulation transfer function. Brief introduction to image processing.
Prerequisites: PHYS 5203 and PHYS 4203, or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5206 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5164)
Medical Radiotherapy Physics
Terminology and related physics concepts. Bragg-Gray, Spencer-Attix cavity theories, Fano's theorem. Dosimetry protocols, dose distribution calculations. Radiotherapy devices, hyperthermia.
Prerequisite: PHYS 5203 or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5207 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5165)
Radiobiology
Physics and chemistry of radiation interactions, free radicals, oxidation and reduction, G values. Subcellular and cellular effects: killing, repair, sensitization, protection. Measurement methods. Survival curve models. Tissue effects, genetic and carcinogenic effects, mutations, hazards. Cancer therapy. Radiation protection considerations.
Prerequisite: PHYS 5203 must have been taken, or be taken concurrently, or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5208 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5163)
Radiation Protection
Biophysics of radiation hazards, dosimetry and instrumentation. Monitoring of sources, planning of facilities, waste management, radiation safety, public protection. Regulatory agencies.
Prerequisite: PHYS 5203 or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5209 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5166)
Medical Physics Practicum
Experience with current clinical medical imaging and cancer therapy equipment, and dosimetry and biophysics instrumentation. The course requires completion of experimental projects on medical imaging, radiotherapy, dosimetry, and biophysics, conducted at local clinics and NRC laboratories.
Prerequisites: PHYS 5203. Also, as appropriate to the majority of projects undertaken, one of PHYS 5204, PHYS 5206, PHYS 5207, or other biophysics course, or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5302 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8132)
Classical Electrodynamics
Covariant formulation of electrodynamics; Lenard-Wiechert potentials; radiation reaction; plasma physics; dispersion relations.
Prerequisite: PHYS 4307 or equivalent, or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5318 [0.5 credit]
Modern Optics
Electromagnetic wave propagation; reflection, refraction; Gaussian beams; guided waves. Laser theory: stimulated emission, cavity optics, gain and bandwidth, atomic and molecular lasers. Mode locking, Q switching. Diffraction theory, coherence, Fourier optics, holography, laser applications. Optical communication systems, nonlinear effects: devices, fibre sensors, integrated optics.
Also offered at the undergraduate level, with different requirements, as PHYS 4208 for which additional credit is precluded.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5601 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5966)
Experimental Techniques of Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics
The interaction of radiation and high energy particles with matter; experimental methods of detection and acceleration of particles; use of relativistic kinematics; counting statistics.
Prerequisites: PHYS 4307 or equivalent, and PHYS 4707; or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5602 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5967)
Physics of Elementary Particles
Properties of leptons, quarks, and hadrons. The fundamental interactions. Conservation laws; invariance principles and quantum numbers. Resonances observed in hadron-hadron interactions. Three body phase space. Dalitz plot. Quark model of hadrons, mass formulae. Weak interactions; parity violation, decay of neutral kaons; CP violation; Cabibbo theory. Also offered at the undergraduate level, with different requirements, as PHYS 4602, for which additional credit is precluded.
Prerequisite: PHYS 4707 or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5604 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8164)
Intermediate Nuclear Physics
Properties of the deuteron and the neutron-proton force. Nucleon-nucleon forces, isospin and charge independence. Nuclear models. Scattering theory. Interpretation of n-p and p-p scattering experiments. Interaction of nucleons with electrons. Interaction of nuclei with radiation.
Prerequisite: PHYS 4608 or permission of the Department.
PHYS 5702 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8172)
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Relativistic wave equations. Expansion of S matrix in Feynman perturbation series. Feynman rules. An introduction to quantum electro-dynamics with some second quantization. Gauge theories. May include introduction to Standard Model.
Prerequisite: PHYS 5701 and permission of the Department.
PHYS 5801 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5140)
Methods of Theoretical Physics I
This course and PHYS 5802 are designed for students who wish to acquire a wide background of mathematical techniques. Topics can include complex variables, evaluation of integrals, approximation techniques, dispersion relations, Pade approximants, boundary value problems, Green's functions, integral equations.
PHYS 5802 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5141)
Methods of Theoretical Physics II
This course complements PHYS 5801.Topics include group theory, discussion of SU2, SU3, and other symmetry groups. Lorentz group.
PHYS 5900 [1.0 credit] (PHY 8290)
Selected Topics in Physics (M.Sc.)
A student may, with the permission of the Department, take more than one selected topic, in which case each full course is counted for credit.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5901 [0.5 credit] (PHY 8191)
Selected Topics in Physics (M.Sc.)
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYS 5905 [1.0 credit] (PHY 5495)
Physics in Modern Technology Work Term
Experience for students enrolled in the physics in modern technology stream. To receive course credit, students must receive satisfactory evaluations for their work term employment. Written and oral reports describing the work term project are required.
Prerequisites: Registration in the physics in modern technology stream of the M.Sc. program and permission of the Department.
PHYS 5909 (PHY 7999)
M.Sc. Thesis
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5001 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5130)
Experimental Characterization Techniques in Materials Science, Physics, Chemistry, and Mineralogy
Survey of experimental techniques used in materials science, condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and mineralogy to characterize materials and solid substances. Diffraction. Spectroscopy. Microscopy and imaging. Other analytic techniques.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5003 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5342)
Computer Simulations in Physics
Advanced numerical methods to study large scale problems in the natural sciences; molecular dynamics, Langevin dynamics, Brownian dynamics methods. The use of different thermodynamic ensembles to compute experimentally relevant physical properties, and work with non-equilibrium situations. Methods to handle very large problems on parallel computers.
Prerequisite: PHY 3355 (PHY 3755), PHY 3370 (PHY 3770) and familiarity with FORTRAN, Pascal or C.
PHYJ 5004 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5340)
Computational Physics I
Deterministic numerical methods in physics. Interpolation methods. Numerical solutions of Newton's, Maxwell's and Schrödinger's equations. Molecular dynamics. Non-linear dynamics. Numerical solutions of partial differential equations in physics. Finite elements. This course cannot be combined for credit with PHY 4340 (PHY 4740).
PHYJ 5005 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5341)
Computational Physics II
Interpolation, regression and modeling. Random number generation. Monte Carlo methods. Simulations in thermo-statistics. Fractals, percolation, cellular automation. Stochastic methods. This course cannot be combined for credit with PHY 4341 (PHY 4741).
PHYJ 5006 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5362)
Computational Methods in Material Sciences
Introduction to modern computational techniques used in material science research. Classical molecular dynamics, classical and quantum Monte Carlo methods, plane-wave based electronic band structure calculations, Carr-Parrinello quantum molecular dynamics. Applications to condensed matter systems: basic simulation techniques, force-field based methods, first-principles quantum mechanical methods.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5102 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5361)
Nonlinear Dynamics in the Natural Sciences
Differential and difference equations, Fourier series and data analysis, stability analysis, Poincaré maps, local bifurcations, routes to chaos and statistical properties of strange attractors. Applications of these concepts to specific problems in condensed matter physics, molecular physics, fluid mechanics, dissipative structures, and evolutionary systems.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5308 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5384)
Physics of Fiber Optic Systems
Physics of electromagnetic waves in fiber-optic systems. Laser modulation, chirp effects, noise. Amplitude, frequency, phase modulation. Optical dispersion (chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses). Fibre losses and nonlinear effects. Optical detectors, receivers, signal to noise ratio, power penalties. Overall system design.
PHYJ 5330 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5330)
Fibre Optics Communications
Optical fibres: description, modes, losses. optical transmitters: light-emitting diodes, semiconducting lasers. Optical receivers: design, noise, sensitivity, degradation, performance. System design and performance. Optical amplifiers: dispersion management, pre-compensation schemes, post-compensation techniques, dispersion compensating fibres, optical filters, fibre Bragg gratings, soliton generation, long-haul lightwave systems, high-capacity systems.
Precludes additional credit for ELG 5103.
PHYJ 5331 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5331)
Fibre Optics Sensors
Fundamental properties of optical fibres. Light sources and detectors for optical fibre applications. Fibre optics sensors based on the Mach-Zehnder, Michelson and Fabry-Perot Interferometers, Bragg gratings. signal detection schemes. Distributed sensing and multiplexing. Applications for optical fibre sensors. Temperature and strain measurements.
PHYJ 5332 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5332)
Nonlinear Optics
Nonlinear optical susceptibility; wave equation description of nonlinear optics processes: second harmonic generation, intensity dependent refractive index, sum- and frequency-generation, parametric amplification; quantum mechanical theory of nonlinear optics; Brillouin and Raman scattering; the electro-optic effect; nonlinear fibre optics and solitons.
PHYJ 5333 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5333)
Mode Locked Lasers
Concept and realization of mode locking. Mode locked lasers including Q-switch. Ultrafast pulse generation and measurement. Soliton generation: dispersion and self-phase modulation. Applications to science and technology.
PHYJ 5401 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5100)
Solid State Physics I
Periodic structures, Lattice waves. Electron states. Static properties of solids. Electron-electron interaction. Dynamics of electrons. Transport properties. Optical properties.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5402 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5110)
Solid State Physics II
Elements of group theory. Band structure, tight binding and other approximations, Hartree-Fock theory. Measuring the Fermi surface. Boltzmann equation and semiconductors. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism and magnetic ordering. Superconductivity.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5403 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5151)
Type I and II Superconductors
Flux flow and flux cutting phenomena. Clem general critical state model. Flux quantization, Abrikosov vortex model and Ginzburg-Landau theory. Superconducting tunnelling junctions (Giaevar and Josephson types).
Prerequisite: PHY 4370 or permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5404 [0.5 credit] (PHY 6371)
Topics in Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Recoilless emission/absorption, anisotropic Debye-Waller factors, second order Doppler shifts. Mössbauer lineshape theory with static and dynamic hyperfine interactions. Distributions of static hyperfine parameters. Physics of the hyperfine parameters: origin of the hyperfine field, calculations of electric field gradients. Applications of Mössbauer spectroscopy.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5407 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5380)
Semiconductor Physics I
Brillouin zones and band theory. E-k diagram, effective mass tensors, etc. Electrical properties of semiconductors. Conduction, hall effect, magneto-resistance. Scattering processes. Multivalley models and non-parabolic bands.
Prerequisite: PHY 4380 or permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5408 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5381/PHY 5781)
Semiconductor Physics II: Optical Properties
Optical constants and dispersion theory. Optical absorption, reflection and band structure. Absorption at band edge and excitons. Lattice, defect and free carrier absorption, Magneto-optics. Photo-electronic properties, luminescence, detector theory. Experimental methods.
Prerequisite: PHY 4380 or permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5409 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5951)
Low Temperature Physics II
Helium 3 and Helium 4 cryostats. Dilution refrigerators. Theory and techniques of adiabatic demagnetization. Thermometry at low temperatures. Problems of thermal equilibrium and of thermal isolation. Properties of matter at very low temperature.
Prerequisite: PHY 4355 or permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5502 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5740)
Physique Numérique I
Méthodes numériques déterministes en physique. Techniques d'interpolation. Solutions numérique des équations de Newton, de Maxwell et de Schrödinger. Dynamique moléculaire. Dynamique non-linéaire. Solutions numériques des équations aux dérivées partielles en physique. Éléments finis.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5503 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5741)
Physique Numérique II
Interpolation, régression et modeler. Nombres aléatoires. Techniques de Monte-Carlo. Simulations thermo-statistiques. Percolation, fractales, et automisation cellulaire. Méthodes numériques stochastiques.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5504 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5387)
Physics of Materials
Microscopic characteristics related to the physical properties of materials. Materials families: metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers and plastics, composites, layered materials, ionic solids, molecular solids, etc. Specific materials groups. Equilibrium phase diagrams and their relation to microstructure and kinetics. Experimental methods of characterization. Interactions and reactions.
Prerequisite: PHY 4382 or equivalent. Cannot be combined with PHY 4387.
PHYJ 5505 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5355)
Statistical Mechanics
Ensemble theory. Interacting classical and quantum systems. Phase transitions and critical phenomena. Fluctuations and linear response theory. Kinetic equations.
Prerequisites: PHY 4370 and PHY 3355 or permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5506 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5742)
Simulations numériques en physique
Un cours ayant but d'étudier des méthodes numériques avancées employées dans les problèmes à grande échelle dans les sciences naturelles. Emploi d'ensembles thermo-dynamiques différents, calculs de propriétés physiques expérimentalement pertinentes, et extension aux situations hors d'équilibre. Techniques pour ordinateurs parallèles.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5507 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5922)
Advanced Magnetism
Study of some experimental and theoretical aspects of magnetic phenomena found in ferro-, ferri-, antiferro-magnetic and spin glass materials. Topics of current interest in magnetism.
Prerequisite: PHY 4385 and permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5508 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5320)
Introduction to the Physics of Macromolecules
Chemistry of macromolecules and polymers; random walks and the static properties of polymers; experimental methods; the Rouse model and single chain dynamics; polymer melts and viscoelasticity; the Flory-Huggins theory; the reptation theory; computer simulation algorithms; biopolymers and copolymers.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5509 [0.5 credit] (PHY 5347)
Physics, Chemistry and Characterization of Mineral Systems
The materials science of mineral systems such as the network and layered silicates. In-depth study of the relations between mineralogically relevant variables such as: atomic structure, crystal chemistry, site populations, valence state populations, crystallization conditions. Interpretation and basic understanding of characterization tools.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.
PHYJ 5703 [0.5 credit] (PHY 6170)
Advanced Quantum Mechanics II
Systems of identical particles and many-body theory. Lattice and impurity scattering. Quantum processes in a magnetic field. Radiative and non-radiative transitions. Introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.
Prerequisite: PHY 5170 and permission of the Department.
PHYJ 6406 [0.5 credit] (PHY 6382)
Physics of Semiconductor Superlattices
Fundamental physics of two-dimensional quantized semiconductor structures. Electronic and optical properties of superlattices and quantum wells. Optical and electronic applications. This course is intended for students registered for the Ph.D. in semiconductor physics research.
Prerequisite: advanced undergraduate or graduate course in solid state physics and permission of the Department.
PHYJ 6407 [0.5 credit] (PHY 6782)
Physique des super-réseaux à semi-conducteurs
Physique fondamentale des structures quantiques bi-dimensionnelles à semiconducteurs. Propriétés électroniques et optiques des super-réseaux et puits quantiques. Applications à l'électronique et à l'optique. Ce cours est destiné aux étudiants et aux étudiantes inscrits au doctorat en physique des semiconducteurs.
Prerequisite: permission of the Department.